The Kuban Cossacks. The village of Klyuchevskoy (the Hot Key). May 1916 © /
Klim Zhukov, a historian:
The media and officials again began to discuss the upcoming discussion in the Duma the new law on the Cossacks. Now the draft law was sent for examination to the Ministry of justice. Cossacks it is defined as “a special form of public and social life independent of the people.” In other words, in the case of the adoption of the law of the Cossacks will be deemed to be an independent nation.
This is very significant initiative. In our country quite a long time pedaliruetsya topic: the Cossacks are a separate nation. This has been stated many officials, for example, the Minister of agriculture, and by 2015, the Governor of Krasnodar region Alexander Tkachev.
“You see that over the last 10-20 years we have consciously supported the Cossacks, it is our culture, traditions, songs. By and large, because even a hundred years had passed, on the land of the Kuban Cossacks lived. But the Cossacks are a people like Russians, Tatars, Mordvins, etc. It is the people, part of the Russian Empire”, — explained his position by the Governor in 2012 on the Board of the regional Department of Internal Affairs.
“He drew his sword and slashed in the face”. Since the tragedy of the Cossacks of the don
So whether the people, the Cossacks, and, in particular, the Kuban Cossacks?
In political-economic terms, the Cossacks never formed a single historical community of people United by common language, origin, culture, history and economy. The language of the Cossacks were of Russian culture was part of the Russian culture, historically, the Cossacks on the don and Kuban were an integral part of the Russian Empire. Cost-Cossack army had known independence, but never existed independently from the national economy.
Thus, the Cossacks are not a nation.
Remains of the anthropological meaning of the term “people” as a large community with a common hard-rodstvennikom.
Basic research V. F. Kashibadze, O. G. Nasonova “Anthropology of the don Cossacks. Anthropology of the Don Cossacks: experience of data integration of science and literature”, published in Rostov-on-don in 2009, sheds light on this important issue.
“The don Cossacks, flesh and blood are part of the Russian people. The basis of their physical status are the morphological characteristics, shared with the population of the South-Eastern areas of the Central Russia, indicating the direction of genetic ties. Anthropological history of the don Cossacks involves processes of mixing between different source groups, the Russian, perhaps, adaptation to new environmental and social conditions, as well as minor include the southern and Eastern elements in ascending to the South the proportions…” — this is the General conclusion of the work. Cossacks are direct relatives of people from the historical regions of Russia: the Grand Duchy of Ryazan and the Eastern part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. That is, — the Oka and the upper don.
Kuban — our. 225 years ago the historical migration of Cossacks
From a historical point of view — nothing surprising. These areas are the future of Russia was given a hefty percentage of refugees and displaced persons fleeing from the constant Tatar raids and the growing social oppression within the Moscow Kingdom. As they fled North into Novgorod land and to the South, on the Volga, the don and the Dnieper, giving rise to groups Autonomous groups of settlers.
These groups lived on the frontier — no man’s land, hunting, fishing, agriculture. The necessity of self-defense turned them into a self-organizing paramilitary groups that became the main feature of the future of the Cossacks: irregular military settlers bound service on the condition of possession of land.
In the feudal era, their status was different from the nobility the fact that the Cossack community acted as a collective feudal Lord. The land was in the group and not personal use. The centuries-old struggle of the Cossacks for land and better conditions of service is in the nature of not national but social struggle. Already in the feudal era saw the emergence of internal stratification along class lines between the ordinary Cossacks and peasants from the “Cossack petty officer”.
“Enrollment in the Cossacks of the Polish prisoners of Napoleon’s army, 1813” in figure N. N. Karazin depicts the time of arrival of Polish prisoners in Omsk after they already assessed by Cossack regiments, under the supervision of the Siberian Cossack army captain (captain) Nabokov, one dressed in Cossack uniforms.
In the Commonwealth of the XVII century in Russia, the Cossacks defended pure class privileges, achieving the best terms for holding lands and services. In Poland, the Cossacks, or tried to go into the registry (under the pay of the crown), or to possess land on an equal footing with the gentry. In Russia — on the don, Yaik (Ural) and Volga Cossacks fought against the enslavement of peasants and the growth of the tax burden. The uprising Khmelnytsky and Razin, and later of Pugachev did not have a pronounced national character — it was a struggle of different strata of the Cossacks (and the local peasantry did not have the status of Cossacks) for economic rights. After the partitions of Poland, the abolition of the Zaporozhian troops under Catherine II in 1775 pure class character of the Cossacks is set by law. The Cossacks became estate border military settlers, who had to ensure combat readiness at the expense of tax breaks and land ownership.
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We emphasize: neither in the sixteenth nor in the XVIII-XIX centuries. we find no qualitative ethnically and, especially, national features of the Cossacks. Extreme error would be non-critical perception of the DRI cases of historical figures from the distant past to the Cossacks as a people. In fact, it would be foolish to expect from Bohdan Khmelnytsky modern philosophical training and the introduction of modern definitions. People in the XVII-XVIII centuries could in a purely rhetorical way to indicate the population, simple (in the sense of oppressed) people, military comrades, and not a nation in the strict sense of the term. Thus, the Cossacks historically, as a class, and class, stratified into classes within. It was not a single monolith, which is not one society, separated by objective economic interests.
Need to clearly understand what a social phenomenon of the Cossacks, took place not only on the don and Zaporozhye. At different times there were over a dozen Cossack territorial communities literally all the borders of the Russian Empire. In addition to territorial Cossacks Cossacks policemen took place in dozens of settlements.
In parallel with the appearance, was a process of prehozhdenie Cossacks decossackization. It began long before the advent of the the Bolsheviks — with Ivan III, who defeated Hlynovskom Veche Republic in 1489. When Mikhail Fedorovich and Alexei Mikhailovich , this process took permanent shape and does not stop until the reign of Alexander II. In the end, there was only the largest of the Cossack territorial entities such as the Kuban, don, Terek, Yaik and Amur.
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Along with the “decossackization on top” was “samaraskaya”. For the poorest of the Cossacks not always had the benefit, and even the physical ability to hold his own expense war horse, gear, and regularly distracted from farming to military training and campaigns. Never stopped the outflow of the Cossacks in other divisions of peasants, burghers or merchants. This is very significant processes in the framework of the issue raised. It is impossible to “cancel” the decree from above, and the existence of the ethnic group. Similarly, it is impossible to say: “I’m not Polish, Russian, Spanish”, from change of passport ethnicity will not change. This again clearly shows the fact that the Cossacks — is a social phenomenon, the class, not the people.
After the legislative abolition of classes November 24, 1917, the Cossacks can speak only as about the ethnographic identity of the descendants of the former Cossacks. But since the 1990s, suddenly raised repeatedly the question of a special Cossack nation. Moreover, almost exclusively in the don and Kuban. We don’t hear about a particular ethnic or Amur Cossacks of the Ural, although their descendants, it would seem, are no different from those on the Kuban. The author of these lines, for example, the father is the Ural Cossacks.
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Initiatives by some modern “Cossacks” are not new. Similar attempts were made earlier.
“Cossacks! Remember, you are Russian, you Cossacks, independent people. Russian hostile to you. Moscow has always been the enemy of the Cossacks, crushed them and exploited. Now the hour was come, when we, Cossacks, could create its own independent of Moscow life” (Speech Krasnova in Potsdam in the summer of 1944, op. CIT. for Gansovsky B. K., Russian Life, August 1961) is the words of Peter Nikolaevich Krasnov, the traitor, who happily collaborated first with the Kaiser’s government, and then with Nazi Germany, for which deservedly ended up on the gallows.
Vyacheslav Grigorevich Naumenko. Source: Public Domain
Kuban actively worked another Nazi hangers ataman V. G. Naumenko. Serving as little control the Cossack troops of the Imperial Ministry of the occupied Eastern territories of Germany, just faded in Italy, where in 1944, surrendered to American forces, and then successfully lived near new York until 1979.
Tellingly, not so long ago the figure of the Nazi Naumenko became very “rukopozhatnoy”. He even hung a plaque in Slavyansk-on-Kuban, where he is described as a “talented soldier and military historian.” About his activities in the formation of the 15th SS Cossack cavalry corps somehow no word, and about his collaboration with ROA other traitor Vlasov.
The Board, however, the court decided to dismantle. But “his work” (Krasnova and bastard) is alive and well. Created Cossack brigade, here, the law on the Cossacks prepared in the next edition, where the Cossacks called a separate nation.
I must say that here the Lord’s “modern Cossacks” are not pioneers. The fact that Naumenko and such overseas citizens have not been idle. In 1959, the U.S. Congress passed a law 86-90 “On the captive Nations”, approved by President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The wording “enslaved peoples” needs clarification: “the enslaved peoples under Communist regimes”. Among the “enslaved peoples”, among others was listed: Ukraine, Lithuania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Idel-Ural (Bashkiria), Turkestan and attention to… > good morning!
The author of the law — Galician emigrant Lev Dobriansky, Chairman of the Ukrainian Congress Committee and lecturer at Georgetown University in Washington. By the way, among his students was a certain Catherine Claire Chumachenko, a future Ekaterina Yushchenko , the first lady of the third President of Ukraine. It provided “direct access” head of the national Bank of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko with the US state Department. It was and is a long-term advocate and Confessor Bandera ideology among Ukrainians on both sides of the Atlantic.
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We must realise that “the course of Eisenhower” to parochial nationalism has led to the collapse of one big country along ethnic lines. In place of the USSR was one big country — the Russian Federation. And of course Eisenhower is more than a useful tool in the communication partner of the “free world” and “totalitarian countries”.
Back in 2008, George W. Bush signaled that the law 86-90 is more than relevant, as totalitarian, repressive regimes persist in “such countries as Russia, Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria and Zimbabwe.” Mind you, haven’t rocked the “Russian spring”, has not returned to Russia the Crimea, and with the entry of Russia into the axis of evil all it was already in order.
And now we are preparing another nationalist bomb in the form of “independence Cossacks” on the don and Kuban. Moreover, preparing for a long time and consistently, using old, reliable tools another 1959 release, and experienced professionals in the ranks.
Our side helps them actively passing laws, like the law on the Cossacks, which is treated as an independent nation which never in history was. The Kremlin either closes his eyes or did not understand the consequences of promoting the idea of the characters. Our I may say lawmakers and lawyers are actively pour water on their mill, including the Cossacks in the list of repressed peoples!
To the land code of the Russian Federation have already made changes by which each district Cossack society can, without bidding, to get up to 300-500 hectares of land. So the Kuban pseudoacacia army has already received more than 14 000 ha. schools create special Cossack classes (3500 classes around the Krasnodar region) and already has 7 of the Cossack cadet corps, where young people would clog the brains of “Cossack separatist” on an industrial scale.
It seems to be okay?
Well, take a look at neighbouring Ukraine! Paramilitary and directly militarized education with nationalist terms, did everything to foment civil war and a military coup.
But we have a few more of Ukraine. And pain points from more countries. For example, Krasnodar Krai borders with the Caucasus. Stage a battle between Cossacks and natives of the Caucasus, “five minutes”. After which may follow the collapse of the country along the line of Volga-don. What is probably required. The right way, so we will win!
The opinion of the author may not coincide with the position of the editorial Board
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