Yevgeniya Shakhovskaya, Valentina Tereshkova, Ada Lovelace, Svetlana Savitskaya, Isabel Martinez — at first glance, these women are not linked. However, they have one thing in common — they were pioneers in their field. Tereshkova and Savitskaya — in space, Shakhovskaya in the sky, Lovelace — programming, Isabel Martinez in politics. Aify talks about each of these strong women.
Yevgeniya Shakhovskaya (nee Andreyeva) was the first female military pilot
The daughter of a successful merchant Mikhail Andreyev Eugene could easily become the next socialite of St. Petersburg, this was facilitated by the connection of the father, and a successful marriage, which ensured her the title of Prince. However, Shakhovskaya chose a different life. At first she was keen on cars and even took part in the European races. But in 1910, the girl is forever ill with the sky after seeing the superior performance pilot Nikolay Popov. First, Eugene learned how to manage, training “Farman”, then went to Germany, where he received a diploma of pilot-instructor devices “Wright”. When the First world war, the Princess tried to offer my services as a military Aviator, but she refused. Then she wrote a petition to the king, and succeeded. In November 1914 Eugene officially became the first female military pilot and went to the army. Alas, her career didn’t last long — soon shahovskuyu accused of treason. And if not Nicholas II, the girl would have been shot. It is the head of state changed the death sentence to life imprisonment. After the February revolution, the pilot was free. However, the return to his former life could not be and speeches: she was addicted to alcohol and became an investigator in the Kiev Gubchk. 31 years old former pilot had died at the hands of their peers, who shot her during the conflict allegedly “in self-defence”.
Yevgeniya Shakhovskaya. Photo: Public Domain
Valentina Tereshkova — first woman astronaut
Initially from hundreds of contenders in addition to Valentina Tereshkova took another four: Jeanne, Yerkin, Irina Solovyova, Tatyana Kuznetsova and Valentina Ponomareva. Each considered not only from the point of view of physical training. An important role was played origin and leadership qualities of girls. Tereshkova in this sense, was a good candidate: active, working — class parents.
16 Jun 1963 at Baikonur was the launch of the spacecraft Vostok-6 Valentina Tereshkova on Board. Flying the world’s first female astronaut lasted almost three days. Despite the physical discomfort, she led the logbook and made photographs of the horizon. The ship was successful in Baevsky area of the Altai territory.
“It was said that Valentine stole her fiance…”. Life Tereshkova to space
Isabel Martinez de Peron the first woman President
The head of Argentina Isabel martínez de perón became in 1974, under rather tragic circumstances. 1 July of the same year the death of her husband, then acting President of Argentina Juan Peron. Despite the fact that at the time the first lady was supported by the leaders of all main political parties, their powers, she resigned early because of a coup. In 1981 a woman was sent to Spain, and after 26 years tried to return to the country, accusing him of involvement in the killings and disappearance of huge numbers of people for political beliefs. However, the national court rejected the request of Buenos Aires, referring to the Statute of limitations.
Isabel Martinez de Peron. Photo: www.globallookpress.com
Valentina Grizodubova — the first woman awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union
Choosing a future profession, Valentina Grizodubova followed in the footsteps of his father — the inventor and the pilot Stepan V. Grizodubova. First flight she made also his submission on the airplane, in 2.5 years of being tied straps to the back of a parent!
24-25 September 1938, her name was known worldwide when the commander of the crew along with Grizodubova Polina Osipenko and Marina Raskova set the women’s international distance record flight on the plane “Rodina”, having made a non-stop flight from Moscow to the far East. For 26 hours and 29 minutes girls covered a distance of 6450 km! Returning to the capital, she and her colleagues were awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union.
Valentina Grizodubova, a speech at a rally dedicated to the meeting at the Belarusian station participating in the flight Moscow – the far East. 1938 Photo: RIA Novosti/ Ivan Shagin
Ada Lovelace — the first female programmer
Love the exact science of Hell instilled in her famous teachers of mathematics Augustus de Morgan , and Mary Somerville. The latter was for girls role model, she told her about the Cambridge Professor Charles Babbidge. When Lovelace was 17 and it was presented to the court, the Ada was able to meet personally with the scientists and between them struck up a friendship, of course, based on professional interest. Babbage worked for many years on the creation of the adding machine. In 1842 he was asked to read the workshop information on their invention in Turin. The lecture was recorded in French, and to translate it in English, resorted to the Ada. Lovelace not only coped with the task, but accompanied by the text of their comments, one of which described an algorithm for computing Bernoulli numbers on the analytical engine. This work, Lovelace was named the first program for playing on the computer, and the Hell dubbed female programmer.
The keen mind of Ada Lovelace. As the daughter of Byron was the first programmer in the world
Svetlana Savitskaya — first woman in space
His first space flight Svetlana Savitskaya made in August 1982 as a cosmonaut-researcher. Together with her then on Board the ship “Union T-7” were Leonid Popov and Alexander Serebrov. In 1984, the 36-year-old Savitskaya won another professional peak and became the first female astronaut that was able to go into space. To prepare for this important event gave her a record time of less than one year, because American competitors are breathing right into the back of the Soviet cosmonauts. Any delay could result in the USSR image losses. On 25 July the ship’s captain Vladimir Dzhanibekov and flight engineer Savitskaya for almost 3.5 hours experienced in the vacuum of space a new development of Soviet scientists — “electron beam gun”. Fortunately no emergency situations have occurred, and on July 29, the entire team returned safely to earth.
The “star” of women. History of the second. Svetlana Savitskaya — “my father’s Daughter”
Alexandra Kollontai — first woman-Ambassador of the USSR
A big social climber, she’s still young, without any hesitation left her husband and son to get an education in Switzerland. Boring family Alexander chose a rich public, where they could fight for women’s rights.
Her diplomatic work preceded the revolutionary activities and even forced emigration abroad. She first supported the Mensheviks, and later the joined the Bolsheviks. In 1922, Kollontai was a Soviet Ambassador in Norway, where he tried to achieve recognition of the Soviet government. Next was Mexico, again Norway and finally Sweden. To leave the service made her illness, Alexandra Mikhailovna chained to a wheelchair.
Winged Eros. Why is the current feminists hate Alexander Kollontai
Sofia Kovalevskaya — first woman in the world-Professor of mathematics
To get a decent education, Sophia Kovalevskaya had fictitiously to marry a young scientist Vladimir Kovalevsky. In those days in Russia, a woman could not do in high school — training could only continue abroad. And for passport it was necessary to have permission from father or husband. The first refused to help her daughter, the second had nothing against the ambitions of a fictitious wife and with her went to Germany. In exile everything was also not so smooth when Sophia studied at the University of Berlin at the Karl Weierstrass: the rules don’t allow women to listen to lectures, but a famous mathematician, having seen the ability of the student, agreed to help her with classes. He literally saved her from hunger and poverty, achieving her place at Stockholm University, when the husband Kovalevskaya committed suicide. So Sophia was Sonja Kowalewski is Professor in the Department of mathematics.
“Professor Sonia”. Why Sofia Kovalevskaya was not needed in Russia
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