The iPhone is the sea of Tranquility. Why the Terrans had left the moon?

December 19, 1972 in the Pacific ocean landed lander of the American spaceship “Apollo 17” with a crew of Eugene Cernan, Ronald Evans and Harrison Schmitt. Successfully completed the sixth expedition to the moon during which the moon’s surface the moon landing was carried out people.

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The flight of “Apollo 17” was the longest manned flight to the moon. On the Ground was delivered a record number of samples of lunar rocks. Records were set in the length of stay of astronauts on the lunar surface and in lunar orbit. “Apollo 17” was the most productive lunar expedition.

Moonlight mystery

In the framework of the Apollo program, NASA had planned to implement until 1974, three more flights to the moon. Was painted studies program, the assigned crews. The experience promised that these flights in productivity will exceed the mission “Apollo-17”.

However on the moon the Americans never flew. Flew there and Soviet cosmonauts.

Space without illusions. Venus was looking for dinosaurs, and on the moon – aliens

If someone in December 1972, said that in the next 45 years, no one, no longer set foot on the moon, he would have laughed rated. Enthusiasts dreamed of moon bases, flights to Mars. Other brave souls and is believed that by 2017 humanity will send the first interstellar expedition.

But it turned out otherwise. And many still wonder why mankind went to the moon?

Only Some theories were put forward. Most of them are United around the assertion that the moon had found something, causing access to it to people closed.

Some believe that astronauts and cosmonauts scared hostile aliens, others blame a kind of harmful radiation, others ready to believe that on the moon since 1945 a branch of the Third Reich. Fourth, insist there was no flight to the moon, all staged in Hollywood.

But if you put aside the improbable assumptions, what is the real reason for the “cooling” of the relations of mankind with the Moon?

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Space trophy

In the 1960-ies, in the framework of the ensuing space race between the USSR and the U.S. Washington lost one prize after another. The Soviet Union was the first satellite, the first manned flight into space first man into space, the first space flight of a woman into space, the first flight crew of three. Remained virtually a “trophy” is the Moon.

To reach Mars or Venus in manned spacecraft in the 1960-ies it was almost impossible. But the Moon, our closest neighbor, was achievable.

President Kennedy promised America that the country will take the Advice on a cosmic revenge, the first landed its astronauts on the moon.

The solution to this problem was thrown huge amounts of money. The Apollo program started in 1961, just three weeks after the flight Gagarin.

The Soviet Union approved the manned lunar program only on 3 August 1964. The contest in outer space has become increasingly expensive, and the USSR, this voltage is already maintained.

First in orbit. As Sergei Korolev, the Soviet Union has provided leadership in space

In 1966, died on Sergei Korolev, the man who by his genius and energy is literally pulling the space program of the Soviet Union forward. Perhaps this death determined the outcome of the “moon race”.

Fallen at the storming of the moon

In the framework of the “lunar program” of the Soviet Union and the United States lost four of space explorers. Few people today remember that the spaceship “the Union” was originally conceived as a “horse”, which was to have taken Soviet cosmonauts to the moon. In my haste to overtake the Americans manned flight of the new ship was appointed when he was still very raw from a technical point of view. April 23, 1967 “Union-1” was launched on Vladimir Komarov. Faced with a series of serious problems, he managed to cope with almost all. A fatal fault was the failure of the parachute system during landing, resulting in the astronaut died.

By this time the Americans also suffered a terrible loss. 27 January 1967 during a ground training on the ship “Apollo-1” a fire broke out in the cabin filled with pure oxygen. Burned alive astronauts Virgil Grissom, Edward white and Roger Chaffee. The battle for the moon was paid not only money, but lives.

The battle for the moon. The heroes took a risk in space, but they are nearly killed in the Kremlin

The Politburo does not take a sin on soul

December 8, 1968, the Soviet Union planned to send a ship with a crew to fly around the moon. Soviet leadership hesitated — the number of failures in unmanned launches were much higher than the number of successful flights.

Three Soviet lunar crew — Alexei Leonov and Oleg Makarov, Valery Bykovsky and Rukavishnikov Nikolay, Pavel Popovich and Vitaly Sevastianov wrote a letter to the Politburo. In it, they asked to allow flight and took all the responsibility for possible tragic outcome for themselves.

But the Soviet leadership, mindful of the death of Komarov refused.

The Americans to fly around the moon, too, was not ready, but having received information that the Russian might try took the risk. 21 Dec 1968 started the “Apollo-8” with a crew of Frank Borman, James Lovell and William Anders, who successfully flew over the moon.

Apollo 10 Photo:

Soviet manned flight around the moon still existed for several years, but in fact it was a formality. All forces were thrown on the landing on the surface.

Neil Armstrong declares checkmate

The super-heavy rocket carrier N-1, the latest project of Sergey Korolev, was extremely capricious. On the test failure followed failure. The first test launch on 21 February 1969 — crash and explosion of the carrier at a height of 12 kilometers. The second test launch on 3 July 1969 was not just the crash and explosion, which had destroyed a launch pad.

The third launch of N-1 happens only on 27 June 1971, he also completed the accident. However, the fundamental issue is to have will be gone.

20 July 1969 the lunar module of the American spaceship “Apollo 11” landed in the lunar Sea of Tranquility. In 2 hours 56 minutes 20 seconds GMT on 21 July 1969 Neil Armstrong became the first man stepped on the moon.

Neil Armstrong. Photo:

The Soviet Union lost the “moon race”. America cheered, taking revenge.

Not very much and wanted

The Soviet lunar program of inertia will go up until 1976, but in 1974, we will stop work on the carrier N-1. The other missiles in the Soviet Union for the conquest of the moon was not, and the program was closed quietly.

Because of the “moon project” of the USSR was a secret, it was public declared — we had not planned to send astronauts to the moon, it’s too expensive and pointless, since all problems can be solved the automatic station and the Rovers.

This was partly true, but mostly a desire to keep a good mine at bad game.

Americans have enjoyed success, sending the moon on one mission after another, until she suddenly was sobering.

No money, have a good mood

The cost of The program “Apollo” in prices of 1969 was more than $ 25 billion in prices beginning of the XXI century was approximately 136 billion dollars. It was too expensive even for America. “Moon race” was won, and further costs became onerous.

At first, neither the Soviet Union nor the United States planned to abandon the moon. Americans in the early 1970’s has developed a program involves the creation of a large orbital station for 50 people, a base on the moon and a small space station orbiting Earth satellite, as well as a whole fleet of ships usable for delivery of astronauts to these objects.

When President Nixon saw the estimated costs of the project, it became really bad. The program “cut”, leaving her only reusable vehicle. We now know under the name “space Shuttle”.

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As for lunar bases, their projects were developed in the 1960s — “Lunex” and “Horizon” the Americans “Star” of the Soviet Union.

In the mid-1970s, the new Chief designer Valentin Glushko proposed a plan to create a long-term Soviet moon base. For the implementation of the project was to build a new super-heavy rocket, Volcano and spaceship LEK (lunar expeditionary spacecraft).

From the plans was breathtaking, but the Soviet Union simultaneously implement several major space projects and the new lunar venture do not have the money.

Expensive and pointless

Almost the same situation was the Americans — almost all means “eat” the project “space Shuttle”, which is very calculated, and which, in the end it turns out, will be a dead end. Lunar base to build it no matter what.

In October 1989 NASA officials presented the project “Lunar oasis”. A 10-year program assumed three stages involving a total of 30 flights, half of which are manned (14 tonnes). Unmanned launches would be on the moon on 20 tons of cargo each.

But when considered how much it would cost, it turned out that “oasis” on the moon is like four of the program “Apollo”.

It is disappointing to fans of conspiracy theories, but with the Moon the situation is quite prosaic. After the US won and USSR lost the “moon race”, the issue of prestige has gone by the wayside, replaced by pragmatism. Throwing hundreds of billions in the moon did not want neither one nor the other. About the industrial development of the moon in the near future it is not, and, therefore, investment in such expeditions can only be regarded as basic research, or investments that will pay off, probably not even in this century.

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Ray Bradbury concludes

In space programs of USA and Russia and now includes plans for manned moon exploration. But as soon as it comes on the reduction of costs, first to suffer funding of these programs.

And it concerns not only Moscow and Washington. A few years ago to gain a foothold on the moon by 2030 was about the European space Agency, China and Japan. Now everything has adjusted plans — Europeans, reducing funding postponed the conquest of the moon indefinitely, China on 2040-2060 years, and the Japanese and all they want to do robots.

The great science fiction writer ray Bradbury once said: “People are idiots. They did a lot of stupid things: costumes for dogs, position of advertising Manager and stuff like iPhone, without receiving anything in return except sour aftertaste. Mankind was given the opportunity to surf the cosmos, but it wants to have consumption is to drink beer and watch soap operas”.

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