Build a city on Mars? Expert – about the importance of space exploration

Almost simultaneously in Russia, there were two landmark events: the failed launch of the rocket “Soyuz-2.1 b” with 19 satellites that crashed in the Atlantic ocean, and signing Donald trump for a Directive on space policy of the United States, according to which the astronauts will travel first to the moon and then to Mars. The situation in the domestic and global space, we discussed with former Deputy Prime Minister, academician of RANS, Deputy Director – chief geologist of the FBI “Regionekspert” Vladimir Polevanov, who was one of the initiators of the construction of the Vostochny space centre.


Polevanov Vladimir Pavlovich. In Soviet times, spent 13 years in Kolyma and 6 years in the Magadan region, by organizing exploration for placer gold. In October 1993 he was appointed by Boris Yeltsin the head of the Amur region. In the modern Russian history as the most short-term Minister. On a post of the Chairman of the state property Committee of the Russian Federation has been 70 days: from November 1994 to January 1995. Succeeding in this place, Anatoly Chubais, said that the Agency was, in fact, a “division” of the CIA, where he worked more than 40 American advisers. This statement was the reason for his dismissal. Prior to July 1995 worked as the Deputy chief of the presidential control Directorate of the Russian Federation. But here he was “not welcome here” – his attempts to make reforms in public favor did not meet with understanding. Further work devoted to practical Geology, science, public and expert work.

What with the satellites?

Lydia Sycheva, “AIF”: Vladimir Pavlovich, in his report on the recent Zhigulevskie readings you were talking about the era of the great space discoveries. What does it mean?

Vladimir Polevanov , the Era of the great space discoveries akin to the era of great geographical discoveries. Mankind has mastered the land, rivers, seas, oceans – water and air. The next step is open space. We need to begin to colonize. Refer to the evolution of human civilizations. What does history tell us? The Nile, Tigris and Euphrates, Ganges, yellow river and the Yangtze, the Danube and Volga, the cradle of the great river civilizations of the ancient world. Then it was time for the Mediterranean. Phoenician, Carthaginian, Cretan-Minoan, Greek, Roman and Maritime civilization of mankind, who have played a huge role in the development of mankind. Spain, Portugal, Holland, England went down in history as an ocean Empire of the era of Great geographical discoveries.

The space industry has become one of the leading. Without its development the impossible the progress of humanity.

Vladimir Polevanov

The pioneers of space exploration, the Soviet Union and the United States. Now in this series, China, Russia, EU, Japan, India. Is the formation of cosmic civilizations. I am convinced that the task of the near future will be a United world effort for the colonization of near space: Mars, the moon, the satellites of Saturn.

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– In 2017 we are celebrating the anniversary of the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite. The championship belonged to the Soviet Union. With this event began the practical exploration of space. The report you’re talking about the achievements of mankind over the past 60 years. What’s the point?

– The space industry has become one of the leading. Without its development the impossible the progress of humanity. TV, Internet, communication satellites, navigation, military intelligence, Geology, cartography, ecology, agriculture – you name it. The planet now has 28 spaceports (not counting the floating start), carried out 5600 launches. 1st place confidently occupies the Soviet Union – 2445 starts, USA – 1639, Russia – 804. The total number of satellites today – 1619. The leaders are USA (576), then China (181), 3rd place-Russia (140). We ceased to be the leading space power in the world, unfortunately. This is especially evident in this segment, as the development and launch of small satellites, i.e. with a mass less than a ton. Their launch into orbit may be “simple” missiles (for example, made on the basis of Intercontinental ballistic). Or they are placed as an additional burden to the normal satellites. Such devices are created by University teams and research groups. NASA is funding these programs. In orbit now spinning 1282 small satellites. Russian among them, only 7. We’re in last place. It’s a shame really. (The small satellite market in 2017 will amount to 2.92 billion. and, according to forecasts, will reach of 7.53 billion. 2022 annual average growth rate from 20.83%. – Ed.)

Who staked the Solar system?

– The solar system has been explored in the USSR: we sent a spacecraft to the moon and Mars. However, on the Red planet there have only been two successful start. But Venus, the Soviet Union studied very intensively and successfully. She was considered “our” planet. But Russia Solar system is not involved at all. Their devices sent to China, India, EU countries, Japan – all and Sundry, but we can not. Our study of near space ended in 1989

People will not face the problem of water, if he will have a base on the moon, and there she is.

Vladimir Polevanov

– Can you briefly recall the main discoveries made by scientists of other countries?

Studied almost all the planets of the Solar system and their major satellites. And the main outcome of the research was the discovery of water in unexpectedly large quantities. For many it was a shock. Five planets and satellites established the presence of oceans of water, 75% of asteroids contain water. This greatly facilitates future colonization of the Solar system. The existence of many kilometers of the ocean beneath the surface of Jupiter’s moon – Europe. A celestial body is covered with an ice crust. Although Europe is much less of the Earth’s global ocean contains at least twice more water than on our planet. The largest in The Solar system Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is the existence of a saltwater ocean is considered proven. There is a kind of “sandwich” of several layers of water and ice. On Callisto, moon of Jupiter, under the ice within 200 km of the ocean lies a depth of 10 km Discovered water on Enceladus. On this satellite of Saturn the ice within 40 km of the ocean. The active moon Enceladus geysers of water out into space for tens of kilometers.

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What with the Moon and Mars?

– People will not face the problem of water, if he will have a base on the moon, and there she is. American scientists, using the data devices of the Indian spacecraft Chandrayaan-1, launched in 2008, established the chemical composition of the moon. The researchers did not distinguish between this water (H2O) and so-called hydroxyl water (OH). Found that water on the moon a total of up to 100 million tons.

“Water is present almost everywhere on the lunar surface, not only in the polar regions, as previously reported,” says the study’s lead author Shuai Li. However, near the poles it is most – 0,05-0,07% by weight of lunar soil. This is slightly less than in the driest deserts of the Earth. To confirm the presence of water on the moon, in one of the upcoming space experiments planned to carry out drilling the bottom of the crater Cabeo. And Mars – he just crammed with water! Here sand dunes, dry riverbeds, ice in the crater. Enough water.

We live in the system “Earth – Moon”, the goal of humanity should be joining the moon to the economic turnover.

Vladimir Polevanov

The traders exploding in the sky

– Six months we discussed the movie the whole country (not yet released). Now I’ve been circling the second month the flag and doping – what a bastard this Rodchenkov, deceived Mutko! Meanwhile, in a parallel reality: Musk”s first launched flying Dragon and Falcon 9. Space private companies in the United States a few. And most importantly, they have no such government as we have, there is successfully developing and private initiative.

– Absolutely. For example, take an American company Moon Express Inc., established in 2010, Its goal is to install telescopes on the moon, mining. In July of this year the company unveiled plans to create by 2020 a robotic Outpost on the South pole of the moon. It is planned to produce a new class of Robotic spacecraft MX. The ultimate goal of the company is to have loyal robots on the moon which will extract the minerals and resources to sale them on the Ground. So American traders master space.

Test: What do you know about space missions?

– Science and technology is developing rapidly. Experts say that the cosmos will help us solve some earthly problems, in particular, to close the energy deficit.

– Humanity, beyond any doubt, you will master the thermonuclear reaction, and this fuel will replace oil, gas, hydrocarbon. The moon is known primarily helium. Geology of the satellite is well studied. For the power of the Land using the isotope helium-3 in nuclear reactions promises great benefits. A distinct advantage is the efficient allocation of energy with virtually no radioactive waste. The energy yield of one ton of helium-3 equivalent to 20 million tons of oil. The spacecraft can deliver on the Ground 150 tons, a flight would exist the Ground for years! According to experts, the lunar reserves of nuclear fuel, enough to provide electricity to the whole of humanity for 5 thousand years. USA, China, India are already planning to mine helium-3 on the moon by 2030, NASA estimated that the production of one ton will cost economically acceptable figure of $ 3 billion., construction of infrastructure for these purposes would cost $ 20 billion. To ensure that the annual U.S. energy need only 35-40 tons of helium-3.

Russia also plans to explore the moon, but somehow stretches this process until 2050 and plans to spend 210 billion. I hope the time will be adjusted, otherwise we will permanently overtake. Since we live in the system “Earth – Moon”, the goal of humanity should be joining the moon to the economic turnover. And this energy production, construction and launch of the spacecraft, monitoring the asteroid threat to their early detection and destruction.

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A significant place in your report on the activities of the American engineer and entrepreneur Elon musk. The founder of SpaceX – a hero of our time?

Musk is a romantic. He says: “One day you will Wake up in the morning and think that the future of cosmic civilization. We are talking about how to believe in future and think that it will be better than the past. And I can’t think of anything more exciting than to go into space and be among the stars”. In 2006 for the money people built and launched a rocket, Falcon-1, in translation – “Sokol-1”. The first three run over accidents. The Mask remained money only on the fourth rocket. If she exploded, he would be ruined. But fortunately for all of us, she took off. And now workhorse heavy rocket Falcon-9, and regularly carries cargo into space. SpaceX began its activity in 2002, and in 2017 it takes 45% of the international market commercial launches. A phenomenal success! The following year, U.S. merchants intend to increase its share to 60-65%. European launches will not exceed 30% of the total, Russian – up to 10%.

Humanity space today is vital. It is a condition of our survival as a planetary civilization.

Vladimir Polevanov

– Competitors come on the heels, so?

– We are under the influence of the Mask had to lower the launch price to 70 million. it cost 60 million dollars, will soon be much less – up to 30 million dollars. Mask returns the first rocket stage on earth, he taught them landing on platforms that are in the ocean. It is a platform equal in size to a football field. The strategic goal of SpaceX is to create a Reusable interplanetary transport system for the colonization of the planets, primarily the moon and Mars.

Ready to die? Then fly!

– City on Mars will really be built?

– Musk says about it constantly, I listened to 10 hours of his speeches. People absolutely convinced that he will do it. For a flight to Mars, and colonization needs to be solved four problems: 1) the development of a reusable vehicle; 2) refueling in Earth orbit (created appropriate tankers); 3) production of rocket fuel on Mars (the theory of how to do it, developed); 4) the choice of an acceptable rocket fuel. Flight thought so: launched a large rocket, which takes 150 tons of payload instead of 30 (it has already been developed, due to be completed by 2021, and 2022 will be able to fly), refueling in orbit, flying to Mars. They built a plant for the production of fuel. Step disapprovals, returns to Earth.

Reusable launch and life on Mars. How to treat projects with the Mask?

In one of his speeches Musk told how to recruit people to the next crew to fly to Mars. First question: are you ready to die? In case of positive response, the candidate is considered further. And we see that in pragmatic America, there are tens of thousands of people willing to die for this flight. Delivery of the first humans to Mars is scheduled to Musk up to 2026 To 2020 planned unmanned landing mission to the red planet. Goal Mask in the future – to create a million city on Mars. It is estimated that in 40 years we can deliver a number of people. Mars will be a base for exploring near and far space.

– Why are you, a geologist, a woman who knew the problems of the Earth, suddenly took up the space?

– Humanity space today is vital. It is a condition of our survival as a planetary civilization. Since the 1980s, human needs exceed the capacity of the planet. We live in debt. The permissible loads for the planet already is about 20%. The planet has lost self-repair function. Under the threat of total pollution of the world ocean. The area of the “garbage continents” there is already more than 11 million sq. km, the Mass of plankton is 6 times less than the mass of plastic in the ocean. The largest oil disaster in the Gulf of Mexico April 20, 2010 was yet another tragic page in the history of planet Earth. The change occurred and the weakening of the Gulf stream, dramatically changed the weather in Europe and North America. Killed as many as 400 species of flora and fauna of the Bay.

From a practical point of view, space exploration is vital to humanity to save the planet. We need to coordinate the activities of all developed countries for this task. And I believe that it is Russia as successor to the first space civilization – the Soviet Union – should take on this role, the mission, in this planetary project.

In Russia everything can change very quickly. We space the process was headed by the first, now we must lead the future colonization of space.

Vladimir Polevanov

– Does it really?

– You can do everything! If you want, of course. I want to Russia changed the attitude in the world. We should be the initiator of the two ideas.

1. The salvation of the World ocean. The conservation priorities of a consumer society will lead to the destruction of the biosphere of the planet Earth with all its consequences for humanity. You need to change the development paradigm: not competition, but cooperation, not the unbridled growth and development!

2. The creative group to develop the all-world programs of colonization and space exploration. The project will avoid costly duplication of work, speed up the movement forward and, most importantly, will bring together opponents to the common good. The world is now teetering on the brink of a new world, possibly nuclear war, in which civilization will be destroyed.

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In Russia everything can change very quickly. We space the process was headed by the first, now we must lead the future colonization of space.

To implement the program necessary to create an international control structure with a conditional name of “Intercosmos”, which should include Russia, USA, China, India, Japan, Brazil, Iran and many other countries. On the agenda – the creation of a Bank for the financing of joint space projects. And of course, you need to develop a new global space legislation.

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