In the scientific community believe that the economic problems of the country, blame the system failures of the state and the prevailing institutional conditions — the imperfection of the political structure, weak creativity and culture of civil society, as well as the specific mentality of Russians. At the annual conference of the New economic Association (NEA), bringing together experts from different ideological camps of both liberals and statesmen — scientists-theorists came to a disappointing conclusion: necessary for the growth of the development of civil society, but the people are not yet ready.
The corresponding members and academicians of the RAS Ruslan Greenberg, Victor Polterovich and Alexander Nekipelov clashed in the scientific debate on the relationship of political and economic systems of the state.
In the scientific community are seriously concerned about the state of economic and political institutions in Russia. The NEA conference — all economists with big names — made reports, in which different angles focused on the linkage of economic growth, democracy and civil society through the prism of theoretical research of modern science. So, the first rector of the HSE Lev Yakobson in his report addressed to the French political figure and diplomat Alexis de Tocqueville, the most famous of which is “Democracy in America”. The main thesis of the speech, Jacobson democracy society should be taught, and it can lead to a highly developed economy and liberal market.
Honorary President of the NEA, Deputy Director of the Moscow new economic school, Moscow state University, academician Viktor Polterovich in his report addressed to the institutional theory of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson, the authors of the book “Why are some countries rich and others poor.” The scientist noted that all the socio-economic history associated with the two terms, extractive and inclusive institutions. “Inclusive institutions encourage the participation of large groups of the population in economic activity associated with protected rights of private property, an unbiased system of justice, in a word, characteristic of modern Western society. But extractive institutions are intended to squeeze the maximum income from one part of the society and send it to the enrichment of other parts of society — the elite. In most of the history of mankind was dominated by extractive institutions, they are even often provided economic growth due to the fact that the elite who picked up the rent from other classes interested in increasing the size of this rent,” — said Polterovich. According to him, in Russia, we now have the return of extractive institutions at its worst, “the iron law of oligarchy” — principle, which is that any form of social organization, democracy or autocracy in the end, inevitably degenerate into the power elite, that is oligarchy.
In his report, head of research area “Theoretical Economics” of the Institute of Economics Alexander Rubinstein touched on the theories developed by them jointly with the President of the NEA, a corresponding member, and scientific Director of the Institute of Economics Ruslan Grinberg. He drew attention to the paternalistic failures and the fallacy of the state as a factor hampering economic growth. Such failures in the economic history of Russia a lot, especially in the last 25 years of the formation of a market economy. One of them is the de — industrialization of the country, simplification of the production structure, dependence on exports. These words are confirmed by the figures: according to the WTO, the share of finished products in total merchandise exports in Russia is only 20%. For comparison: in Canada — 45%, UK 69%, China — 94%. Another failure of the domestic way of privatization of state property, when the sale takes place at scandalously low prices to favor certain structures. The failure of government policy in the distribution of incomes and the middle class formation — the third error States that must be fixed if Russia is committed to developing the economy.
“The most important obstacle to economic growth and a high standard of living is increased after the restructuring of the authoritarian syndrome, deeply ingrained in the culture of the society and blocking all of the components necessary for the development, explains the scientific message of the conference, HSE Professor mark Urnov. — In the us for many years brought up the mistrust, the inability to cooperate and take responsibility for the civil initiative, so to change it will take at least two generations. Now the terrible brakes in the form of low level of health of the population, technological backwardness, destroyed work ethic, large-scale corruption, geopolitical problems hinder the formation of high-quality elite as the ruling class, who will think about the benefits for society and not for himself”.