Viktor Abakumov. © /
In the heyday of the dashing, handsome General loved women to tremble and was afraid of men. At some point he pushed the Beria, Stalin becoming the chief enforcer.
The fall of Viktor Abakumov turned as swift as the rise. Changes in the country following the death of the leader in 1953, saved the lives of many, but not him.
The son of a laborer with three classes of education
Laborer Simeon Abakumov and the rosy dreams have not seen the son of Victor in his General’s uniform. Born in April 1908 the boy if there was something richly endowed, not by the mind, physique and heart.
His father died when Victor was 14. Behind was the three years of education ahead —the need to earn their piece of bread. Two years the teenager has served as a volunteer medical orderly in the 2nd Moscow brigade of special purpose. Then interrupted temporary jobs until he settled in as a packer in Mostramos.
In addition to the powerful figure, Abakumov was working correct origin, which is coupled with the first Komsomol, and then the party ticket helped him to break out in the heads.
In the early 1930s, the authorities decided to dilute the bureaucracy real proletarians. So Victor was the Deputy chief of administrative Department of trade and mail order offices of people’s Commissariat of trade of the RSFSR.
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Master of physical and moral break-up
In January 1932 he was invited to work in the OGPU, where he became first a trainee and then authorized economic Department of the Plenipotentiary representative of the OGPU of the Moscow region.
The 24-year-old employee of the OGPU literally stunned with wide-ranging capabilities. Women were hung round his neck, and he for amorous encounters was to use the safe house that is designed to work with the agents.
Guide liberties Abakumov to endure was not — it was transferred to the post operative Commissioner of the 3rd branch of Operational Department of the Gulag. In 1934 this turn in his career was considered a significant decrease.
He could remain inconspicuous cog in the system until retirement, but changed all the “Great terror”. Executive Abakumov was able to make confessions, even the most persistent stubborn. In his youth he was fond of wrestling, and now used those skills to influence the accused. Those who fell into his hands, broke down physically and mentally.
The officer of KGB to the fall of 1938, rose to be Deputy head of the Department of the secret political Department. It drew the attention of the new head of the NKVD Lavrenty Beria. Viktor Abakumov was appointed head of the NKVD in the Rostov region.
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The main “SMERSH”
By the spring of 1940, he was promoted to the rank of senior major of state security. Beria was extremely pleased with the activities of the chief of the Rostov management. In early 1941, during the reorganization of the NKVD, Abakumov was summoned to Moscow, where he received the post of a Deputy of Beria. In the area of responsibility of the new associate entered the Office of the special Department of army counter — intelligence.
On the basis of this control in 1943 was created the Main Directorate of counterintelligence “SMERSH” people’s Commissariat of defense of the USSR.
The head of The “SMERSH” was Viktor Abakumov. Now he received the rank of people’s Commissar of defense and reported directly to Joseph Stalin, carrying out his orders.
“SMERSH” was the most effective counter-intelligence structure of the Second world war. The activities of German agents in the Soviet rear was virtually paralyzed. During the war, was neutralized over 3,500 saboteurs and 6,000 terrorists. In the liberated territories were detected and detained Nazi accomplices, destroyed the nationalist groups. In the first months after the Victory was held on a truly Titanic work on the verification of former prisoners of war and civilians deported to Germany.
Dry statistics show that the vast majority of Soviet citizens, tested “SMERSH” had not been arrested and prosecuted. Even those against whom there was doubt were checked more thoroughly investigating authorities. All this, of course, does not exclude errors and abuses, but it’s safe to say that the “SMERSH” was not engaged in political repression.
It is foolish to think that the head of the “SMERSH” had no relationship to the results of its operations. Perhaps, in the career of Viktor Abakumov this period was the most successful, if we talk about really beneficial for the state work.
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The proximity to the leader burns
In the summer of 1945 Viktor Abakumov became the General-the Colonel. “SMERSH” was included as a control in the Ministry of state security of the USSR, Abakumov head of which was appointed in the spring of 1946. He was replaced by Vsevolod Merkulov, a close associate of Beria.
Moreover, Stalin brought Beria and Abakumov alienated. Now the head of the MGB was entrusted to conduct the most sensitive cases. Accustomed to unquestioningly follow orders, Abakumov faithfully carried out the will of the leader. All the major political processes, and the Affairs of the late 1940s — early 1950s, supervised by the head of the Ministry of state security.
Such a power could not turn the head. Abakumov believed that the fate of other high-ranking persons, collapsed from the heights of power right in the firing basement, does not threaten him.
But on July 12, 1951 Minister of state security Viktor Abakumov was arrested and placed in Lefortovo prison. He was charged with abuse of office, concealment of important materials, attempt to prevent the “case of doctors” and more.
The prison was not only the Minister himself, but also his wife with his son, who just turned 4 months.
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Viktor Abakumov was considered a master of knocking out the testimony, but judging by the complaints that the prisoner wrote from prison to the Central Committee, it applied the methods so brutal that even the expert in this matter they have a revelation.
According to the legends of sabotage operations of Pavel Sudoplatov, Abakumov in prison endured incredible suffering, but remained undaunted. In the end, “the case of Abakumov” significantly delayed.
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In March 1953 Stalin died, and in June of the same year, was arrested Lavrenty Beria. For some, these changes are salutary, but not for General Abakumov. The only change is the prosecution — in the end, he became a member of the “Beria gang”, and the main crime was a fabrication the so-called “Leningrad affair” which had arrested leaders of the Leningrad oblast, city and district organizations of the CPSU(b), as well as almost all Soviet and government officials, which was extended from Leningrad to leadership positions in Moscow.
The trial of Viktor Abakumov started on the 14th of December 1954 in Leningrad, in the district House of officers. Defendants in the case were also five of his subordinates.
At the trial he did not admit his guilt, repeatedly repeating that comply with management directives.
19 Dec 1954 Viktor Abakumov was sentenced to death. The sentence was executed the same day.
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Posthumous commutation of sentence
40 years later the Military Collegium of the Supreme court reclassified the charges, removing him from treason, sabotage, terrorist act and participating in a counterrevolutionary group. However, under article 193-17 “b” criminal code of the RSFSR (military malfeasance — abuse of power in the presence of particularly aggravating circumstances) the penalty was left unchanged — the death penalty.
In 1997, the Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation submitted a further amendment, subject to the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of may 26, 1947, “to abolish the death penalty” the execution of Viktor Abakumov was commuted to 25 years imprisonment.
This wording means that the rehabilitation of the Minister of state security of the USSR not be.
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