The picture “the Commander Tukhachevsky” the work of artist E. Kleymenova. Exhibition for the 70th anniversary of the Soviet Armed forces. © /
On the night of June 12, 1937 in the building of the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court. Efficient and well trained people were executed death sentences against the Soviet military commanders — the commanders of the 1st rank of Iona Yakir and Jerome Uborevich, commander of the 2nd grade August Crust, the corps commanders Robert Eideman, Vitovt Putna, Boris Feldman and Vitaly Primakov.
The main “hit list” was Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky.
Losing a rebel or an innocent victim?
The name of The hero of the Civil war for many years will disappear from all textbooks to return during the Khrushchev “thaw”. Then, the Soviet people first hear a story about a “brilliant military leader who could save the country from the terrible defeats in the war with Nazi Germany, but became a victim of the bloody tyrant Stalin“.
In the “Tukhachevsky” hurricane affects the pace of investigation and trial — from the moment of arrest of the Marshal until sentencing and execution took only three weeks. None of the Soviet leaders, caught in the flywheel of the “great terror” had not dealt so rapidly.
It is also interesting that the warlord almost immediately began to give grateful evidences. Purely civilian interrogations are sometimes kept for weeks, and Tukhachevsky broke down without a fight.
Marshall fans believe it’s all about the cruel torture, but skeptics argue — no evidence of the use by Tukhachevsky special methods no.
In the post-Soviet period the attitude to Marshall again began to change. He remembered the suppression of anti-Bolshevik uprisings in the 1920-ies, the use of chemical weapons against peasants in Tambov. Then there were doubts — and whether there was actually a “military conspiracy” or fraud accusations against Tukhachevsky was indeed a real ground?
“Red Bonaparte”. Victory and defeat of Lieutenant Tukhachevsky
A hero who wanted to live
The nickname “red Bonaparte” he was really fit. The son of impoverished Smolensk hereditary nobleman and a peasant, Mikhail Tukhachevsky dreamed of becoming a military to achieve a high position in society. In 1912 he graduated from the Moscow cadet corps, in 1914 — Aleksandrovskoye military school.
As one of the best graduates, Tukhachevsky was enlisted in the life guards Semenov regiment, and was soon fighting at the front in the 1-th guards division.
He showed a desperate courage, earned for the six months of the war five orders. But when in February 1915, his company was surrounded by the Germans, the RAF raised his hands up one of the first. The majority of his colleagues chose death in a fierce battle and the future Soviet Marshal in captivity.
Saving lives, the officer did not intend the war to stay in the camp. After four unsuccessful escape attempts, he still managed to return Home in the autumn of 1917.
Family of Mikhail Tukhachevsky, 1904. Source: Public Domain
Personal thanks Lenin
In Russia the revolution was raging, and Mikhail Tukhachevsky was quickly determined who he is. From a young age he was fascinated by Napoleon, and remembered that his rise began in the service of the revolution. In March 1918, the 25-year-old Tukhachevskiy voluntarily entered the service in the Red Army.
In September 1918, commanding the 1st army of the red army, he would hold one of the first successful operations against the troops of Kolchak, having beaten white at his hometown of Lenin Simbirsk. Personal thanks sent to the young commander, were costly.
On the Eastern front troops of Tukhachevsky skillfully acted against the best troops of the enemy, including part of the famous Vladimir Kappel. For the victory over Kolchak Tukhachevsky was awarded the Honorary revolutionary weapon.
In early 1920, he managed to prove himself as commander of the Caucasian front, who fought against Denikin. But in April he was appointed commander of the Western front in force against the poles.
Commander Tukhachevsky in the Russian Civil war. Source: Public Domain
The loser on the Vistula
To capture the Jozef Pilsudski Kiev Tukhachevsky was a powerful counterattack, thanks to which the Red Army, breaking at 60 miles a day, reached the Niemen.
“Through Warsaw, Paris, and Berlin!” — nominated at this point, the slogan of the the Bolsheviks. The world revolution began to seem very close.
Have acted the Temporary revolutionary Committee of Poland, Feliks Dzerzhinsky, was preparing to lead the government of the new state of workers and peasants.
To Warsaw there were two dozen miles, when part of Tukhachevsky bogged down in the enemy’s defenses. Acting also adventurous, like his French idol, “red Bonaparte” overestimated their capabilities. Taking advantage of the lack of reserves Tukhachevsky, Marshal Pilsudski struck a terrible blow in the flank of the Western front of the red army. Late Tukhachevskiy is to blame for what happened Budennogo, do not come to his aid.
Whatever it was, the Red Army in August 1920, suffered a crushing defeat, which in Poland is called the “miracle on the Vistula”.
Admiral and others. As was the fate of the leaders of the White army?
“Chemical Michael”: destroyed if Tukhachevsky gas peasants?
For the failure of the Tukhachevsky outside Warsaw did not become fatal. In November 1920 he was in Belarus led the defeat of the gangs of Bulak-Balakhovich. In March 1921 he quickly and skillfully crushed the anti-Bolshevik uprising of the sailors of Krondstadt.
A separate issue is the participation of Tukhachevsky in the suppression of the Antonov rebellion in Tambov. Here he remember the cruel measures against the rebels, including the use against them of poisonous gases.
About hardness — it was mutual. Brutal antonivtsi dealt with the Communists and the red army relentlessly, so that the response was not philanthropy.
What to chemical weapons, in 1921, no commitment to apply it, the Red Army itself did not take. Moreover, in the world to combat the “chemistry” looked then much easier. The idea of banning these weapons have not yet heard in full force.
In fact, no thousands of dead gas of the peasants was not in sight. In the ranks of the red Army in 1921 there were not enough professionals to effectively use the chemical munitions. Yes, and the ammunition itself was not enough. Therefore, this practice turned, never having achieved more or less significant effect. Rebels defeated with conventional weapons.
Mikhail Tukhachevsky, the commander of the Caucasian front. Photo: RIA Novosti
The myth of The “progressive commander”
In the 1920-ies −1930-ies Mikhail Tukhachevsky was one of the most influential military leaders of the Soviet Union. The fact that he was among the first marshals, says a lot.
Tukhachevsky held the posts of Deputy people’s Commissar for military and naval Affairs, and then Deputy Commissar of defense. And was constantly in conflict with himself Commissar — one of the confidants of Stalin, with Klim Voroshilov.
In the core of the confrontation lay as personal ambitions, and different views on military construction.
Since Khrushchev believed that the opinion of Tukhachevsky was a progressive, while I awkwardly held the thesis of “the exceptional role of the cavalry”.
In practice, however, things are different. For example, the contribution of the Tukhachevsky military theory is limited only by the repetition of thoughts, expressed to him, and generously laced with political propaganda.
The man who had all the tools. What was the legendary Marshal Semyon Budyonny?
Indeed, Marshall has supported some progressive schools of thought, for example, a “Group of jet propulsion study” (gird), whence came the famous Soviet rocket technology designers, including Sergei Korolev. At the same time, Tukhachevsky had a lot of failed ideas. For example, in the late 1920s, he insisted on the production in the USSR not less than 50 000 tanks per year. Listen to Tukhachevsky Soviet leadership, and the country would be overstrained, building armor, which is obsolete by the middle of 1930-ies.
Another failed project called Tukhachevsky — “universal gun”. Marshall sought to create a weapon that would be both long-range and anti-tank missiles and could shoot down aircraft. The project was stopped in time, and this gun never appeared in any army in the world.
Examples of this kind of activities Tukhachevsky more than enough.
Ability commander Mikhail Tukhachevsky was no different from other Civil war hero Semyon Budyonny. Last anything outstanding in the great Patriotic not marked. There is no reason that the command of Tukhachevsky in the summer of 1941 fundamentally changed the course of the war.
The commanders of the red army of the Soviet Union. From left to right: Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Semyon Budyonny and Iona Yakir. Photo: RIA Novosti
Marshal against Stalin: what lies behind the “Tukhachevsky”?
But what about the plot? There is no doubt that much of what appears in the “Tukhachevsky affair”, brought there through the efforts of the assistants of head of the NKVD Nikolai Yezhov, who was trying to increase its value.
However, the name of Tukhachevsky as a possible “conspirator” has repeatedly surfaced in the Soviet Union, and in exile since the early 1930-ies. His ambition was well known, therefore, in anti-Bolshevik circles were pinned on it hopes as a future military dictator.
Until a time in the career of Tukhachevsky being adversely affected. But around 1936, it formed the core of the military, dissatisfied with Voroshilov. They thought it necessary to get Stalin’s removal from the post of people’s Commissar.
Wrong fascist. Why don’t like General Franco in Spain
And in 1936 there was a revolt of General Franco in Spain. Stalin was able to draw conclusions, Tukhachevsky was taken under special control of the Soviet secret services.
May 10, 1937 Tukhachevsky was transferred from the post of first Deputy Commissar of defense for the post of the commander of the Volga military district, and on may 22 was arrested in Kuibyshev. From this point to the sentence and execution it will take only three weeks.
Such an atypical rush can attest to the fact that the Soviet leadership seriously feared the armed supporters of Marshal.
But if Tukhachevsky and considered the option, until the practical implementation is not reached — that there is no evidence. Marshall, being under arrest, surrendered as quickly as that battle when he was captured by the Germans. If he hoped for leniency, or just broke down, realizing that the “red Bonaparte” and can’t reach the heights achieved by the real Bonaparte, now hardly anyone knew.
In 1957, Mikhail Tukhachevsky and the other defendants in his case was posthumously rehabilitated.
Answers to all the questions are still there. Sometimes history does not give them at all.
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